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这是敦煌莫高窟英文ppt，包括了中国三大石窟，History，CAVES，The mural commemorating（纪念）victory of Zhang Yichao over the Tibetans 等内容，欢迎点击下载。
Dunhuang was established as a frontier garrison
(边境要塞）outpost by the Han Dynasty Emperor to protect against the Xiongnu in 111 BC. It also became an important gateway to the West， a centre of commerce along the Silk Road， as well as a meeting place of various people and religions such as Buddhism。
During the Tang Dynasty， Dunhuang had became the main hub of commerce of the Silk Road and a major religious centre.
A large number of the caves were constructed at Mogao during this era，including the two large statues of Buddha at the site， the largest one constructed in 695 following an edict a year earlier by Tang Empress Wu Zetian to build giant statues across the country.
After the Tang Dynasty， the site went into a gradual decline ， and construction of new caves ceased entirely after the Yuan Dynasty. Islam（伊斯兰教） had conquered much of Central Asia， and the Silk Road declined in importance when trading via sea-routes began to dominate Chinese trade with the outside world
The Northern Song Dynasty， the tangut (西夏）and the Yuan Dynasty， Mogao Caves gradually hasten the decline， only repaired the previous dynasty hole room（孔房） primarily， newly built extremely few．After Yuan Dynasty，along with Silk Road abandoning， Mogao Caves also stopped constructing and is neglected gradually in common people's field of vision．
After clear in 1701， here only then again manner attention．The modern times， people usual name it “Thousand Buddhas Cave．
Mogao Caves are the nation key cultural relic preservation organ（全国文物重点?；さノ唬?br /> It is world famous by the fine mural and the cast．Its beginning constructs at 16 countries' former Qin times， has been through repeatedly 16 countries， the Northern Dynasy， Sui， Tang， five generations， Tangut ， the Yuan and so on all previous dynasties constructing。
Forms the huge scale，existing cavern 735， the mural 45000 square meter，argillaceous painted sculpture 2415， are in theworld the extant scale is biggest，the content richest Buddhism artplace
The Mogao Caves extant cavern 735， divides into the north and south two areas．South the area is Mogao Caves' main body， is engaged in the religious activities for the clergy the place， some 487 caverns， have the mural or make an idol．North the area has 248 caverns， in which only then 5 existence murals or makes an idol （冥想）But after other all is the place that the clergy leads a pious life （僧侣修行）
Two area total 492 cavern existence mural and makes an idol， has the mural 45，000 square meter， the argillaceous painted sculpture 2415， Tang Songmu constructs cliff eave 5， as well as several thousand lotus flower pillars，spread out on the floor the decorative brick and so on．
This are 248 caves of north which has also been found to the north which were living quarters（住处）， meditation chambers（冥想室 ） and burial sites（土葬） for the monks.
The caves are clustered（聚合） together according to their era， with new caves from a new dynasty being constructed in different part of the cliff 。
The murals on the caves spanned a long period of history， from the 5th to the 14th century
The murals are largely of Buddhist theme， some however are of traditional mythical themes（传统神话主题） and portraits（画像） of patrons （赞助人）
There are around 2，400 surviving clay sculptures at Mogao. These were first constructed on a wooden frame， padded with reed， then modelled in clay stucco（粘土）， and finished with paint
The early sculptures were based on Indian and Central Asian 中亚prototypes （原型）with some in Greco-Indian （印度希腊王国）style of Gandhara（古印度）. Over time the sculptures showed more Chinese elementsand became gradually sinicized （中国化）
Early murals showed a strong Indian and Central Asian influence in the painting techniques used
A distinct Dunhuang style （截然不同的的敦煌风格）however began to emerge（浮现） during Northern Wei Dynasty
the murals of the Mogao Caves
Xuanzang performing ceremonies for the Buddha 敦煌壁画中的唐僧礼佛图
Wife of Dunhuang ruler Cao Yanlu
Cave 409， Western Xia
Mogao Grottoes Art
Painted sculpture art
Rich and colorful murals， various Buddhist stories， mountains and scenery， pavilions， terraces and open halls etc.Dunhuang Mogao Grottoes murals (11)
Architectural painting， landscape painting， flower pattern， flying Buddha and then working people were the scene of a variety of production etc.， reproduction is the art of over 1500 years of Sixteen States to the Qing Dynasty folk style and historical changes， magnificent. In a large number of murals art can also be found that the ancient artists on the basis of the nationalization， the Iran， India， Greece and other countries of the ancient art， is a symbol of the Chinese nation developed civilization. The murals of various dynasties show different styles of painting， which reflects the political， economic and cultural situation of Chinese feudal society， and it is a glorious chapter in the history of Chinese ancient art.